a r X i v :a s t r o -p h /0609296v 1 11 S e p 2006Received 2006June 23;Accepted 2006September 01
Preprint typeset using L A T E X style emulateapj v.12/14/05
A SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF REDSHIFT 1.4 Z 3.0GALAXIES IN THE GOODS-NORTH FIELD:SURVEY DESCRIPTION,CATALOGS,AND PROPERTIES 1
Naveen A.Reddy 2,3,Charles C.Steidel 2,Dawn K.Erb 4,Alice E.Shapley 5,and Max Pettini 6
Received 2006June 23;Accepted 2006September 01
ABSTRACT We present the results of a spectroscopic survey with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph on the Keck I telescope of more than 280star-forming galaxies and AGN at redshifts 1.4 z 3.0in the GOODS-North ﬁeld.Candidates are selected by their U n G R colors using the “BM”and “BX”criteria to target redshift 1.4 z 2.5galaxies and the Lyman break criteria to target redshift z ∼3galaxies;combined these samples account for ∼25−30%of the R and K s -band counts to R =25.5and K s (AB)=24.4,respectively.The sample of 212BM/BX galaxies and 74LBGs is presently the largest spectroscopic sample of galaxies at z >1.4in GOODS-N,and includes 19spectroscopically-conﬁrmed distant red galaxies (DRGs)with J −K s >2.3(Vega).Extensive multi-wavelength data,including our very deep ground-based near-IR imaging to K s (AB)=24.4,allow us to investigate the stellar populations,stellar masses,bolometric luminosities (L bol ),and extinction of z ∼2galaxies.Deep Chandra X-ray and Spitzer IRAC and MIPS data indicate that the sample includes galaxies with a wide range in L bol ,from ≃1010L ⊙to >1012L ⊙,and covering 4orders of magnitude in dust obscuration (L bol /L UV ).The sample includes galaxies with a large dynamic range in evolutionary state,from very young galaxies (ages ≃50Myr)with small stellar masses (M ∗≃109M ⊙)to evolved galaxies (ages >2Gyr)with stellar masses comparable to the most massive galaxies at these redshifts (M ∗>1011M ⊙).Spitzer data indicate that the optical sample includes some fraction of the obscured AGN population at high redshifts:at least 3of 11AGN in the z >1.4sample are undetected in the deep X-ray data but exhibit power-law SEDs longward of ∼2µm (rest-frame)indicative of obscured AGN.The results of our survey indicate that rest-frame UV selection and spectroscopy presently constitute the most time-wise eﬃcient method of culling large samples of high redshift galaxies with a wide range in intrinsic properties,and the data presented here will add signiﬁcantly to the multi-wavelength legacy of the GOODS survey.Subject headings:cosmology:observations —galaxies:active —galaxies:evolution —galaxies:high redshift —galaxies:starburst —galaxies:stellar content 1.INTRODUCTION Rapid advances in our understanding of galaxy evolu-tion have been prompted by the recognition that obser-vations covering the full spectrum are necessary to ade-quately interpret the physical nature of galaxies.Multi-color Hubble Space Telescope (HST )imaging of two oth-erwise inconspicuous ﬁelds in the high Galactic latitude sky (Williams et al.1996,2000)marked the inception of a decade dominated by large-scale multi-wavelength sur-veys.The two Hubble Deep Fields are now encompassed or supplanted by other areas of the sky which are the fo-cus of a number of space and ground-based observations both within and peripheral to the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS;Dickinson et al.2003a).
Included among these data are the deepest Chandra X-
1Based on data obtained at the W.M.Keck Observatory,which is operated as a scientiﬁc partnership among the California Insti-tute of Technology,the University of California,and NASA,and was made possible by the generous ﬁnancial support of the W.M.Keck Foundation.2California Institute of Technology,MS 105–24,Pasadena,CA 911253NOAO,950N Cherry Ave,Tucson,AZ 857194Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,60Garden Street,Cambridge,MA 021385Department of Astrophysical Sciences,Peyton Hall-Ivy Lane,Princeton,NJ 085446Institute of Astronomy,Madingley Road,Cambridge CB3OHA,UK ray observations (Alexander et al.2003),HST ACS opti-cal imaging (Giavalisco et al.2004),Spitzer IR to far-IR imaging (Dickinson et al.,in prep;Chary et al.,in prep),GALEX far and near-UV imaging (Schiminovich et al.2003),ground-based optical and near-IR imaging and spectroscopy (Capak et al.2004;Cowie et al.2004;Vanzella et al.2005),and radio/submillimeter observa-tions (Richards 2000;Pope et al.2005).Despite the easy access to broadband photometry and subsequent insights into galaxy evolution made possi-ble by multi-wavelength surveys such as GOODS,im-portant issues regarding survey completeness and the physical conditions in galaxies and their surrounding intergalactic medium can only be investigated spectro-scopically.Spectroscopy of galaxies in blind ﬂux-limited surveys can be quite ineﬃcient and expensive,particu-larly if one only wants to study galaxies at certain cos-mological epochs.However,we have shown that the technique of photometric pre-selection can allow one to cull large samples of galaxies in particular redshift ranges over a large range in redshift 1.0 z 4(e.g.,Adelberger et al.2004;Steidel et al.2004,2003,1995;Steidel &Hamilton 1993),which can then be ef-ﬁciently followed up using multi-object optical spectro-graphs such as the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (LRIS)on the 10m Keck telescope.Near-UV sensitive spectrographs such as the blue arm of LRIS (LRIS-B)on Keck and the Focal Reducer/low dispersion Spectro-