Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

944IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY ,VOL.14,NO.2,JUNE 2004

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss

Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Makoto Okano,Toshio Iwamoto,Megumi Senokuchi,Shuichiro Fuchino,and Itaru Ishii

Abstract—A pinning-type superconducting magnetic levitation

linear guide which consists of bulk high-T c superconductors and a

magnetic linear rail with permanent magnets and steel plates was

investigated for a goods transportation system,an energy storage

system,and other uses.This paper describes the loss of this linear

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

guide and a construction of the magnetic linear rail in which no in-

homogeneous magnetic field is generated in a comparatively large

gap in a long distance configuration.The loss is evaluated ana-

lytically by a newly developed electromagnetic analysis program.

This proposed magnetic rail construction suppresses inhomoge-

neous magnetic fields generated by the existence of such spaces as

temperature change countermeasures.We performed analyses and

experiments on this construction.Results show that calculated and

measured values concur well both quantitatively and qualitatively,

proving that the proposed magnetic linear rail shows magnetic field

distribution that is uniform in the running direction in the required

gap.

Index Terms—Hysteresis loss,inhomogeneous magnetic field,

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

pinning force,superconducting magnetic levitation guide.I.I NTRODUCTION E NERGY conservation is effective as a countermeasure against global warming.Conventional transportation systems such as automobiles,railways,ships,and airplanes consume large quantities of energy resources to bear the burden of great resistance to motion;they also contribute greatly to global environmental deterioration through generated toxic substances

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

and .Countermeasures are urgently required to protect the environment and energy resources.We have continued the study of a goods transportation system using a pinning-type superconducting magnetic levitation guide that consists of bulk

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

Magnetic Rail Construction for a Low Loss Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Linear Guide

high-superconductors and a magnetic rail composed of permanent magnets and steel plates.It has ex-tremely low loss with its noncontact supporting guide of goods vehicles,and vacuum passage [1],[2].Running resistance can be extremely small.Low running resistance can both achieve energy savings and reduce environmental pollution influence.This paper describes the loss of a pinning-type supercon-ducting magnetic levitation linear guide.A newly developed electromagnetic analysis program calculates that loss.Construc-tion of the magnetic linear rail is done by a method that gener-ates no inhomogeneous magnetic field in a comparatively large Manuscript received October 20,2003.M.Okano,M.Senokuchi,S.Fuchino,and I.Ishii are with the Na-tional Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology,Tsukuba,Ibaraki,Japan (e-mail:m-okano@aist.go.jp;megumi-senokuchi@aist.go.jp;s.fuchino@aist.go.jp;i.ishii@aist.go.jp).T.Iwamoto is with Institute of Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers,Shibuya,Tokyo,Japan (e-mail:t.iwamoto@juse.ne.jp).

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TASC.2004.830327

TABLE I M AGNETIC F IELD D EPENDENCE OF C RITICAL C URRENT D

ENSITY gap in a long distance configuration.Inhomogeneous magnetic fields increase the running loss of the superconducting mag-netic guide.They are generated by the existence of spaces that arise as a result of temperature change countermeasures,dete-rioration,and manufacturing errors.We present this magnetic rail construction which generates no inhomogeneous magnetic field;then we perform analyses and experiments on it.II.L OSS OF A P INNING -T YPE S UPERCONDUCTING L EVITATION

L INEAR G UIDE

A.Numerical Analysis

For determining the loss of a superconducting magnetic lev-

itation linear guide,we developed three new dimensional elec-

tromagnetic field analysis programs that consider the relation-

ship between critical current

density

of the superconductor and external magnetic

field

—the property.Magnetic

flux density can be calculated numerically using the following

equation on magnetic

potentials.

(1)

(2)

(3)

Critical current

density,,which flows parallel to

the

plane

(plane )of the SmBaCuO superconductor used for

analyses depends on the external magnetic field,as shown in

Table I.Melt-processed rare earth bulk superconductors (Sm-

BaCuO,NdBaCuO,GdBaCuO,etc.)have critical current den-

sity,,that is almost identical to YBaCuO bulk superconductor

at liquid nitrogen temperature in low magnetic field.They also

have very high critical current density in high magnetic fields of

several teslas.Loss that occurs in a bulk superconductor by fluc-

tuation of the magnetic field is mainly a hysteresis loss.The hys-

teresis loss is obtained as loss behavior of Type-2superconduc-

tors according to the critical current model originated by Bean.

Fig.1shows the analytical model used for obtaining the loss

of a superconducting magnetic levitation linear guide.Perma-

nent magnets and steel plates are arranged with each other in 1051-8223/04$20.00©2004IEEE

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